Nacogdoches-the oldest town in Texas- is named for a Caddo Indian Chief who lived in the area. It remained an Indian settlement until 1716 when Spain established the Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de los Nacogdoches mission and began European activity in the area. When Spain pulled their settlers back to San Antonio, Antonio gil Y’Barbo led a group of settlers back to Nacogdoches in 1779. He laid out the town using the intersection of El Camino Real (Kings Highway) and El Calle del Norte (North Street) as his central point. At this intersection he built a stone house for his trading business and the “Old Stone Fort” stands today on the campus of Stephen F. Austin University. Nacogdoches County is an original county of the Texas Republic created in 1836 and organized in 1837. The Old University Building, the only secular building chartered under the Republic, which is still standing, sits on one of the Nacogdoches ISD campuses.
Because of the various rebellions, which tried to establish Texas as a Republic, nine flags have flown over Nacogdoches rather than the six, which have flown over Texas.